Northern Watersnake Nerodia sipedon

Adult from Jefferson County
Juvenile from Putnam County

Identification: This harmless snake is ubiquitous throughout streams, ponds, lakes, and wetlands in Indiana and is frequently mistaken for the venomous "water moccasin" or cottonmouth. Northern watersnakes are incredibly variable with some individuals displaying mahogany red bands on a background of silver-gray and others, dark brown to the point of appearing nearly uniformly black from a distance. Juveniles are light gray with black to dark brown bands that usually become brown to reddish with age. Northern watersnakes, though not quite as large as Indiana's other watersnakes, are robust snakes that may reach nearly five feet (1.5 m) in length.

Similar Species: This snake is probably one of the most frequently misidentified in Indiana as many other brownish gray snakes have banded patterns. It's important to note that, in Indiana, cottonmouths are only known from two sites and may now be extirpated from both. However, the two can be easily differentiated as cottonmouths are more heavy-bodied, have broad, chunky heads, are almost uniformly dark as adults, have bright yellow tail tips as juveniles, and have a distinctive, broad black stripe through the eye. Copperheads are more similar in appearance, but favor drier environs. They also have a distinctive hourglass-shaped bands, when viewed from above, as opposed to the irregular blotches and bands of northern watersnakes. Eastern milksnakes, prairie kingsnakes, and western foxsnakes have a similar banded pattern, but watersnakes are more robust and have heavily keeled ("rough") scales. The diamond-backed watersnake is found alongside this species in southwestern Indiana, but has a distinctive chain-linked "diamond" pattern, instead of bands or blotches. Plain-bellied watersnakes also occur alongside northern watersnakes but adults are nearly black dorsally with a brilliant orange underbelly. Juveniles have bands similar to those of northern watersnakes, but lack the blotches and checkers that mark the venter of northern watersnakes.

Distribution: Northern watersnakes are found throughout Indiana and are, undoubtedly, the most frequently encountered snake around any body of water in the state. Though they are abundant along rivers and wetlands, these watersnakes adapt well to man-made environments and readily colonize small ponds and utilize rip-rap and concrete structures along dams and canals.

Lake in LaGrange County
Rocky Stream in Fountain County

Distribution Map
Distribution map of Northern Watersnake (Nerodia sipedon)
Photographs